African American History in Aug./Sept. Community Action Newsletter

African-American History

The Revolution
and Early America

See also: American Revolution, History of the United States (1776–1789) and African Americans in the Revolutionary War
The later half of the 18th century was a time of political upheaval in the United States. In the midst of cries for relief from British rule, people pointed out the apparent hypocrisies of slave holders’ demanding freedom. The Declaration of Independence, a document that would become a manifesto for human rights and personal freedom, was written by Thomas Jefferson, who owned over 200 slaves. Other Southern statesmen were also major slaveholders. The Second Continental Congress did consider freeing slaves to disrupt British commerce. They removed language from the Declaration of Independence that included the promotion of slavery amongst the offenses of King George III. A number of free Blacks, most notably Prince Hall—the founder of Prince Hall Freemasonry, submitted petitions for the end of slavery. But these petitions were largely ignored.[19]
This did not deter Blacks, free and slave, from participating in the Revolution. Crispus Attucks, a free Black tradesman, was the first casualty of the Boston Massacre and of the ensuing American Revolutionary War. 5,000 Blacks, including Prince Hall, fought in the Continental Army. Many fought side by side with White soldiers at the battles of Lexington and Concord and at Bunker Hill. But when George Washington took command in 1775, he barred any further recruitment of Blacks.
Approximately 5000 free African-American men helped the American Colonists in their struggle for freedom. One of these men, Agrippa Hull, fought in the American Revolution for over six years. He and the other African-American soldiers fought in order to improve their white neighbor’s views of them and advance their own fight of freedom.[20]
By contrast, the British and Loyalists offered emancipation to any slave owned by a Patriot who was willing to join the Loyalist forces. Lord Dunmore, the Governor of Virginia, recruited 300 African American men into his Ethiopian regiment within a month of making this proclamation. In South Carolina 25,000 slaves, more than one-quarter of the total, escaped to join and fight with the British, or fled for freedom in the uproar of war. Thousands of slaves also escaped in Georgia and Virginia, as well as New England and New York. Well-known Black Loyalist soldiers include Colonel Tye and Boston King.
The Americans eventually won the war. In the provisional treaty, they demanded the return of property, including slaves. Nonetheless, the British helped up to 4,000 documented African Americans to leave the country for Nova Scotia, Jamaica, and Britain rather than be returned to slavery.[21]
Thomas Peters was one of the large numbers of African Americans who fought for the British. He was a North Carolina slave who left his master’s farm in order to receive Lord Dunmore’s promise of freedom. Peters fought for the British throughout the war. When the war finally ended, he and other African Americans who fought on the losing side were taken to Nova Scotia. Here, they were given pieces of land that they could not farm. They also did not receive the same freedoms as white Englishmen. Peters sailed to London in order to complain to the government. “He arrived at a momentous time, when English abolitionists were pushing a bill through Parliament to charter the Sierra Leone Company and to grant it trading and settlement rights on the West African coast.” Peters and the other African Americans on Nova Scotia left for Sierra Leone in 1792. Peters died soon after they arrived but the other members of his party lived on in their new home.[22]
The Constitutional Convention of 1787 sought to define the foundation for the government of the newly formed United States of America. The constitution set forth the ideals of freedom and equality while providing for the continuation of the institution of slavery through the fugitive slave clause and the three-fifths compromise. Additionally, free blacks’ rights were also restricted in many places. Most were denied the right to vote and were excluded from public schools. Some Blacks sought to fight these contradictions in court. In 1780, Elizabeth Freeman and Quock Walker used language from the new Massachusetts constitution that declared all men were born free and equal in freedom suits to gain release from slavery. A free Black businessman in Boston named Paul Cuffe sought to be excused from paying taxes since he had no voting rights.[23]
In the Northern states, the revolutionary spirit did help African Americans. Beginning in the 1750s, there was widespread sentiment during the American Revolution that slavery was a social evil (for the country as a whole and for the whites) that should eventually be abolished.[citation needed] All the Northern states passed emancipation acts between 1780 and 1804; most of these arranged for gradual emancipation and a special status for freedmen, so there were still a dozen “permanent apprentices” into the 19th century. In 1787 Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance and barred slavery from the large Northwest Territory.[24] In 1790, there were more than 59,000 free Blacks in the United States. By 1810, that number had risen to 186,446. Most of these were in the North, but Revolutionary sentiments also motivated Southern slaveholders.
For 20 years after the Revolution, more Southerners also freed slaves, sometimes by manumission or in wills to be accomplished after the slaveholder’s death. In the Upper South, the percentage of free blacks rose from about 1% before the Revolution to more than 10% by 1810. Quakers and Moravians worked to persuade slaveholders to free families. In Virginia the number of free blacks increased from 10,000 in 1790 to nearly 30,000 in 1810, but 95% of blacks were still enslaved. In Delaware, three-quarters of all blacks were free by 1810.[25] By 1860 just over 91% of Delaware’s blacks were free, and 49.1% of those in Maryland.[26]
Among the successful free men was Benjamin Banneker, a Maryland astronomer, mathematician, almanac author, surveyor and farmer, who in 1791 assisted in the initial survey of the boundaries of the future District of Columbia.[27] Despite the challenges of living in the new country, most free Blacks fared far better than the nearly 800,000 enslaved Blacks. Even so, many considered emigrating to Africa.[23]
From Wikipedia


Marian Anderson: singer
Regina Anderson: librarian, playwright
Maya Angelou: singer, actress, activist, writer, poet
Lil Hardin Armstrong: jazz musician
Pearl Bailey: singer, performer, stage, film, special ambassador
Josephine Baker: entertainer
Willie B. Barrow: minister, civil rights activist
Daisy Bates: journalist, civil rights activist
Mary McLeod Bethune: educator, racial justice activist, New Deal government official
Marita Bonner: writer, educator
Gwendolyn Brooks: poet, winner of a Pulitzer Prize in 1950, poet laureate of Illinois
Hallie Quinn Brown: educator, lecturer, clubwoman, reformer
Marjorie Lee Browne: educator, mathematician
Shirley Chisholm: politician
Bessie Coleman: aviator
Angela Davis: radical black activist, educator, philosopher
Ruby Dee: actress, activist
Henriette Delille: founded religious order
Alice Dunbar-Nelson: writer, teacher; Harlem Renaissance figure
Marian Wright Edelman: lawyer, educator, activist, reformer, children’s advocate, administrator
Elizabeth (“Old Elizabeth”): preacher, emancipated slave, autobiographer
Myrlie Evers: activist
Jessie Redmon Fauset: poet; Harlem Renaissance figure
Althea Gibson: tennis player
Angelina Weld Grimke: writer
Charlotte Forten Grimké: educator, writer, anti-slavery activist, civil rights activist, clubwoman
Fannie Lou Hamer: activist, sharecropper
Lorraine Hansberry: playwright
Lil Hardin: jazz musician
Frances Ellen Watkins Harper: writer, abolitionist
Anna Arnold Hedgeman: educator, civil rights activist, politician, government office-holder, writer, feminist
Dorothy Height: activist, reformer, organizer
Sally Hemings: slave, likely mistress of Thomas Jefferson and mother of several of his children
Billie Holiday: singer
Ariel Williams Holloway: musician, pianist, educator, poet
Bell Hooks: writer, theologian, philosopher
Lena Horne: singer, actress
Zora Neale Hurston: writer, folklorist, anthropologist
Mae Jemison: astronaut, physician
Georgia Douglas Johnson: poet; Harlem Renaissance figure
Barbara Jordan: politician
Florynce Kennedy: lawyer, activist
Jackie Joyner-Kersee: athlete
Nella Larsen: writer, nurse
Edmonia Lewis: sculptor
Audre Lorde: writer, poet, activist, librarian
Wangari Maathai: educator, activist, Nobel Peace Prize winner
Toni Morrison: writer; winner, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1993
Eleanor Holmes Norton: lawyer, educator, politician
Odetta: singer
Rosa Parks: civil rights activist, social reformer, racial justice advocate
Lucy Parsons: anarchist, writer
Leontyne Price: opera singer
Charlotte Ray: lawyer, teacher
Bernice Johnson Reagon: singer, activist
Wilma Rudolph: athlete, runner (track and field)
Augusta Savage: sculptor, teacher
Ntozake Shange: playwright, writer
Nina Simone: singer
Maria W. Stewart: lecturer, abolitionist, writer
Mary Church Terrell: activist, reformer
Sojourner Truth: lecturer, escaped slave, abolitionist, women’s rights activist
Harriet Tubman: escaped slave, Underground Railroad conductor, abolitionist, women’s rights activist, spy, soldier
Cicely Tyson: actress
Wyomia Tyus: athlete
A’Lelia Walker: business executive, arts patron
Alice Walker: writer, activist
Maggie Lena Walker: business executive, bank president
Madam C J Walker (Sarah Breedlove Walker): business executive, inventor
Margaret Murray Washington: educator, clubwoman
Faye Wattleton: nurse, activist, Planned Parenthood president
Ida B Wells-Barnett: journalist, activist
Phillis Wheatley: poet, slave
Oprah Winfrey: reporter, talk show host, business executive

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